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Autori: Sanader, Mirjana; Tončinić, Domagoj
Naslov: Project Tilurium
Skup: XVII Roman Military Equipment Conference
Mjesto i datum: Zagreb, Hrvatska, 24-27.05.2010
Ključne riječi: Tilurium; Gardun; rimska vojna oprema
The village of Gardun is perched on a plateau overlooking the right bank of the Cetina river, on a dominating and strategic position controlling the surrounding fields and plateaus, as well as the crossing over the Cetina in the area of the town of Trilj. Trilj has developed on the spot that offered an easy crossing over the Cetina, at the point where the river leaves the Cetina Plain and starts intersecting the deep canyon through the Zamosorje region. Unlike Trilj, which lies at 300 m above the sea level, at St. Peter's church in the northeastern part of the Gardun village the absolute height reaches 429 m. Towards the northwest of the village, at the site of Oglavak, the terrain rises over several terraces to almost 450 m, while to the south, towards the Podvorice site, the terrain descends to less than 420 m. To the southwest, the territory of the present-day village of Gardun borders with the valley of the Vojnić village. Gardun and its immediate vicinity have been attracting attention for more than 200 years due to the archaeological finds that were coming to the Archaeological Museum in Split, the Archaeological Collection of the Franciscan Monastery in Sinj, the Museum of Cetinska Krajina in Sinj and, from recently, also the newly-founded Trilj Regional Museum in Trilj. The finds from Gardun reached also museums outside Croatia, as well as various private collections, while there are also those that have been built to this day into buildings at Gardun. Two fragments of a tropaion stand out as the most important preserved stone monuments. Other prominent monuments are tombstones and other inscriptions bearing testimony to the presence of various Roman military units at Gardun - legio VII, that is VII Claudia pia fidelis, legio XI, odnosno XI Claudia pia fidelis, legio IV Flavia felix, cohors II Cyrrhestarum, ala Claudia nova, ala (Tungrorum) Frontoniana, cohors I Belgarum, cohors III Alpinorum, cohors VIII voluntariorum civium romanorum. Other units associated with Gardun in addition to the mentioned ones are cohors Aquitanorum and cohors IV Noricorum. In addition to the many military inscriptions, Gardun also yielded a great many small archaeological finds of military origin, all of which bear witness to the existence of a Roman military stronghold at this position. It was observed from very early on that the wider area of Gardun is second to no other site in the territory of the Roman province of Dalmatia when it comes to the number of tombstones of active soldiers of the VII legion. This led to the conclusion that the VII legion must have had a permanent camp there during its sojourn in Roman Dalmatia. The opinion that the ancient name of Gardun was Tilurium, while that of Trilj was Pons Tiluri is now generally accepted. These names were documented in ancient sources in various ways – Tabula Peutingeriana refers to it as Tilurio, Antonine Itinerary (337, 4 and further) as Ponte Tiluri, Anonymous of Ravenna as Tilurion (IV 16 = 210, 12) and Ponteluri (IV 16 = 210, 13), the milestone found at Orepak in the village of Pruda near Narona as Til[urio], the milestone from Runovići near Imotski as Tilur(io), and Pliny (N.H. 3, 142) as Tribulium. Even though the significance of this site has long been noted in the scholarly literature, until recently the issue of Tilurium has been dealt with in detail by the scientific community on only one occasion, i.e. in an article by Marin Zaninović. In this paper Zaninović put forward the opinion that Pliny’s Tribulium referred to a hillfort of the Illyrian tribe of the Dalmatae, which predated the Roman legionary camp and which was situated at the position of the church of St. Peter’s. In addition to single finds from Gardun, numerous prehistoric finds from the bed of the Cetina river are another indirect testimony about the prehistoric Tilurium, and the same holds true for other prehistoric sites in its immediate vicinity, among which the so-called Prizida deserves a special mention. This is a prehistoric rampart that closed access to the valley of the Vojnić village from the west, from the Podi plateau The Romans were not slow in recognizing the strategic importance of this position. On the plateau west of the St. Peter’s church they built a legionary camp, which was a link in the chain of fortifications connecting Ivoševci near Kistanje (Burnum) – Tepljuh near Drniš (Promona) – Kadina Glavica – Balijina Glavica (Magnum) – Muć (Andetrium) – Gardun (Tilurium) – Humac (Bigeste). It is assumed that this series of forts built by the Romans cut across the territory of the Dalmatae, establishing a defence line, a limes of sorts, standing guard against the still precarious interior of Illyricum. The existence of such a defence line was recently dismissed, linking in turn the foundation of a permanent military camp in Tilurium with the recruitment among the Dalmatae and other subjugated peoples into nine Dalmatian cohorts in the wake of Bato’s insurrection. The legionary camp Tilurium also controlled the crossing over the Cetina river (Hippus) in the area of the town of Trilj (Pons Tiluri), and with this also the roads that led from ancient Salona towards northeast, into the interior of the province of Dalmatia, and southeast, towards ancient Narona. On the Tabula Peutingeriana this is the communication Salona – Argentaria, and on the Salonitan inscription CIL III 3201 = 10159 + 3198 b = 10156 b it was documented as the road a Salonis ad Hedum castellum Daesitiatum. The road to Narona, which formed part of the communication Aquileia – Dyrrhachium, branched from that road in Trilj. The exact date of the arrival of the Romans in Gardun and the establishment of the military camp has remained unknown to this day. This issue is directly linked with the problems of the confrontations between Rome and the Dalmatae and the arrival of the Roman legions in Dalmatia, that is, Tilurium. The Romans waged war on the Illyrian Dalmatae for more than a hundred and fifty years – in 156 B.C. the campaign against the Dalmatae was led by Caius Marcius Figulus, while in 155 B.C. the leader was Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica. Lucius Caecilius Metellus spent the winter of 119 B.C. in Salona, and remained there waging war against the Dalmatae until 117 B.C. Between 78-76 B.C. Caius Cosconius once again seized Salona from the Dalmatae. In 51 B.C. Gaius Julius Caesar, who was the proconsul of Illyricum at the time, mounted a military intervention against the Dalmatae. In 48 B.C. the Dalmatae defeated Aulus Gabinius near Sinodium, and the war was resumed in 47 B.C. by Publius Vatinius. In 34-33 B.C. Marcus Agrippa and Gaius Octavianus waged war on the Dalmatae. The end to the wars of Rome with the Dalmatae was put only after the great Illyrian rebellion of A.D. 6-9 was suppressed. Most authors agree that the latest plausible date for the arrival of the VII legion in Dalmatia, and with this also in Tilurium, was during or immediately after the Dalmatian-Pannonian insurrection of A.D. 6-9. It nevertheless deserves mention that there are also other opinions based on the analysis. The exact time of the departure of the VII legion from the Roman province of Dalmatia is not known either, but most authors date that event to the period around the middle of the 1st century A.D. All the mentioned reconstructions of former events connected with the Roman camp of Tilurium and with the stay of the Roman units in Illyricum and Dalmatia were based on a single scholarly discipline, that is, the ancient history and ancient written sources. The corroboration of previous theses or the results that could be combined with previous knowledge to serve as the foundation on which new conclusions could be based, could have been provided only by archaeological investigations. The already mentioned archaeological finds, the records by various travellers and earlier authors about visible remains of the camp architecture, as well as rare still visible above-ground remains, clearly point to the prospects and importance of this site. However, even though it was stressed on several occasions that the archaeological investigation of the legionary camp of Tilurium was a major task facing future archaeologists, it commenced only as late as 1997. Since then, the Department of Archaeology of the Faculty of Philosophy of the University in Zagreb, under the management of Prof. Dr. Mirjana Sanader, has carried out systematic archaeological investigations at Tilurium. They were stimulated by the above-mentioned uncertainties, and the researchers were faced with several objectives, the most important being: 1. To definitely ascertain the position and parameters of the former Roman legionary camp. 2. To determine the chronology of construction as well as its stratigraphy. 3. It was crucial to finally put an end to the drain of archaeological finds from that site, and to use the future finds to try to contextualize the finds from Gardun kept in various museums, none of which comes from a known context. The investigations covered only a small part of the former camp, but the results obtained so far and the studies of movable and immovable finds show that Gardun hides imposing remains of Roman camp architecture and military equipment. At the same time certain questions received answers, but many new ones were also raised. The extreme western end of the village road (Position 3) contains the rare remains of the camp architecture, which have remained preserved above ground to this day. The remains belong to a massive western camp rampart. The still visible core of the rampart consists of mortar-bound rubble, and another construction detail – the impressions of massive timber beams built into the rampart are recognizable at places. The visible remains allow one to put forward an ideal reconstruction of the western rampart and to document its course. A wall segment was documented in the southeastern part of the camp. The dimensions and position of the wall point to the conclusion that this is the southern rampart of the camp. The position of these ramparts and the natural configuration of the terrain in the north and east point to the conclusion that the camp covered the surface of around 12 ha. Even though the surface areas of legionary camps differ, they mostly vary between 20 and 25 ha. It is interesting in this context that 12 ha is also the size assumed for Burnum, the second legionary camp in the province of Dalmatia. In addition to a segment of the south rampart, the excavation in the southeast part of the former camp revealed a building exhibiting a series of interesting constructional details. It had wooden beams built into the walls. Those visible on the wall face were interconnected with beams set vertically through the wall. The south and east walls were supported with counterforts. The rooms were filled with stone in order to level the terrain. Only the southern and eastern walls, as well as the room they enclosed, were thoroughly investigated, conserved and reconstructed. However, the investigations showed that a series of parallel rooms/structures continue northwards from beneath this terrace. A comparison with the layouts of Roman legionary camps and other military camps points to the conclusion that a complex of six dormitories (centuriae) of a legionary cohort was situated there. One can assume that west of the position 1 lay a complex of six dormitories of a legionary cohort, oriented north-south and laying adjacent to the previous ones. The remains of a floor mosaic were found in the central part of the camp. A fragment of the central field remained preserved, on which one can recognize the rear of a bull depicted with white and light red tiles on a black background. Two mosaic fragments with different motifs were found in the bed of this mosaic. These fragments bear witness to the presence of two mosaics predating the one with the bull depiction. The analysis places the sequence of the mosaics from Tilurium approximately from the turn of the 1st cent. B.C. until the end of the 1st century A.D. In addition to the mentioned positions, the excavations were also carried out on a structure lying parallel to the western rampart. In the northwestern part of the camp, the remains of a cistern with supporting pillars that carried the roof and a canal that probably carried water to the centre of the camp, were only partly investigated. Only a limited part of the architectural remains have been investigated so far. These remains can be attributed to the Roman military architecture only based on a comprehensive comparison with other military camps. Unlike those, small archaeological finds can be associated with the military much more easily because they are typical for Roman military camps. This includes fragments of ceramic and glass vessels, fragments of construction ceramics and architectural elements in stone, tombstones, coins, Roman weapons and parts of Roman military equipment as well as a number of other objects. They bear testimony to the fact that Gardun was settled throughout the antiquity, and that life was most intense during the first half of the 1st cent. A.D., when the VII legion resided in Gardun.
Vrsta sudjelovanja: Poster
Vrsta prezentacije u zborniku: Sažetak
Vrsta recenzije: Međunarodna recenzija
Projekt / tema: 130-0000000-0777
Izvorni jezik: ENG
Kategorija: Znanstveni
Znanstvena područja:
Puni text rada: 472750.M._Sanader_D._Toncinic_-_Project_TILURIUM.tif (tekst priložen 4. Lip. 2010. u 12:00 sati)
Upisao u CROSBI: (, 4. Lip. 2010. u 11:32 sati
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