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Autori: Rijavec, Majda
Naslov: Life aspirations and happiness
Skup: 20th Anniversary International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics
Mjesto i datum: Baden Baden, Njemačka, 24-30.7. 2008.
Ključne riječi: life asprations; happiness; extrinsic/intrinsic goals
What is happiness, and how can we attain it? As Schmuck and Sheldon (2001) state since ancient times people have been pondering a question of existential importance for each of us: What makes humans truly happy? Do we gain happiness from striving for power or wealth, from controlling the passions, from promoting the welfare of other creatures, or is happiness to be found somewhere else? For many people the primary goal in life is to be happy. Yet research indicates that happiness is most often a by-product of participating in worthwhile projects and activities that do not have the attainment of happiness as their main aim. Many psychologists also see goal-striving as vital to the well-being and good life (Frisch, 1998 ; Klinger, 1998) Kasser and Ryan (1993, 1996, 2001) distinguish between intrinsic goals (such as those involving emotional intimacy, community service, and personal growth), whose contents are hypothesized to be naturally consistent with human nature and needs, and extrinsic goals (such as those involving financial success, physical attractiveness, and social fame/popularity), which are less consistent with positive human nature. Extrinsic goals are strongly shaped by culture, and typically involve obtaining symbols of social status and positive evaluation of other people. In contrast intrinsic goals are assumed to emerge from natural growth tendencies, in which individuals move towards expanded self-knowledge and deeper connections with others and the community. People who strive for intrinsic goals are assumed to be "in touch" with their deeper nature, and to have a greater chance of finding happiness and well-being (Ryan et al., 1996). In contrast, people focusing strongly on extrinsic goals make themselves dependent on the circumstances of the time and society in which they were born and may even become prisoners of such things as fashion, status symbols, leisure activities and so forth. As a consequence, they may ignore innate needs mentioned above, so that pursuing their goals may not necessarily enhance their well-being. Extrinsic goals can also be instrumental for satisfaction of the basic needs, but if they become particularly strong and out of balance with intrinsic goals, then negative well-being consequences are likely to result (Sheldon et al., 2004). Research has shown that these two types of goals relate in different ways to personal well-being (Kasser & Ryan, 1993, 1996, 2001 ; 1998 ; Ryan et al., 1999). The investment in, or success at intrinsic goals (those closely related to basic needs) is associated with enhanced well-being. On the other hand, investment in and/or success at extrinsic goals (those presumes to be unrelated to basic needs) does not enhance, and often detracts from, well-being. But, some research suggest that negative effects of extrinsic goals (mainly financial success) may apply only to affluent countries (Rijavec et el., 2006.) These countries have come to construe financial success largely in terms of wealth and see financial success as providing necessary security. But in transitional European countries financial success means opportunity and possibilities of self-expression and self-growth (Frost & Frost, 2000). Also, financial success in poorer cultures is probably more likely to concern basic survival than in wealthier cultures, where financial success is more often a means to acquire status and non-essential pleasantries. We can not ignore the cultural impact since financial satisfaction is a stronger predictor of life satisfaction and subjective well-being in poor nations than in wealthier ones (Diener & Diener, 1995, Kasser & Ahuvia, 2002).
Vrsta sudjelovanja: Plenarno
Vrsta prezentacije u zborniku: PP prezentacija
Vrsta recenzije: Međunarodna recenzija
Projekt / tema: 009-0342618-2193
Izvorni jezik: ENG
Kategorija: Znanstveni
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Upisao u CROSBI: (, 18. Sij. 2009. u 19:35 sati

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