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Autori: Karač, Zlatko; Žunić, Alen
Naslov: Turkish-Islamic urban planning in the 16th and 17th century in Croatia
Izvornik: 1°Congresso internazionale di ReteVitruvio : Il progetto d'architettura fra didattica e ricerca : Atti = 1st International Conference of ReteVitruvio : Architectiral Design Between Teaching and Recerach : Proceedings. Vol. 2 / Claudio D'amato (ur.). - Bari : Politecnico di Bari, Facolta di Archtettura / Poliba Press / Arti grafiche Favia , 2011. 931-940 (ISBN: 978-88-95612-77-5).
Skup: Congresso internazionale di ReteVitruvio : Il progetto d'architettura fra didattica e ricerca (1 ; 2011)
Mjesto i datum: Bari, Italija, 02.-06.05.2011.
Ključne riječi: Turkish urban planning; Islamic town; Croatian urbanism
At the time when the renaissance flourished on the narrow strip along the Adriatic coast, almost two thirds of hinterland Croatia was under Turkish rule (mostly between 1526 and 1687). This region was the western border of the Ottoman Empire, creating a peculiar meeting point between the Western and Islamic civilizations and visual arts. With the arrival of the Turkish rule, the focus of the medieval urban network changed. The cities further from the battlefield lost some of their military importance, while those with a favorable traffic position became stronger (Osijek, because of the bridge at Budimska Cesta), or became the new administrative centers like Požega or Ilok (seats of large territorial units called sandžak). In the Turkish settlement classification system, at first there were more settlements of the varoš type (semi-urban fair towns with the Christian majority), and after the local Islamization after 1550, many of the settlements were ranked as casbah. The status of a šeher (“true city”) was later achieved only by Mitrovica, Osijek, Požega and Ilok. During the first few decades of their rule, the Turks did not make any significant changes to the urban structure of the towns they conquered. Majority of the settlements were conquered without greater destruction, so there was no need for reconstructions or extensive new construction. The demographically reduced population (until the population recovery around 1600) had no need for expansion, so the existing medieval layer was preserved throughout the 16th century. The picturesque iconography of Croatian towns was mostly influenced by the silhouettes of mosques and minarets, turbe, hamam buildings with domes and similar structures. Although they were individual insertions, they were the only authentic Turkish contribution to the urban structure that was still medieval at the time. The reorganization of towns into mahalas (residential neighborhoods) created around the mosques was not primarily a physical process, but a confessional, social and professional grouping of local džemat (communities). In the comparative census from the 1680s, larger towns had from 7 to 14 mahalas, each with approximately 35 to 50 houses. The Turkish parcelization systems can no longer be found in existence, but the example of the land tapija (purchase contracts) from the town of Vukovar shows that more than 70% of lots in the town was the size of up to ½ dunum (544 sqm), which can be considered an average construction lot in Slavonia. The only new town the Turks founded in Croatia was Petrinja. Established in 1592, it developed from a fortified wooden fortress, or palanka, called Yeni Hissar = New Fortress. The town of Gospić also has a Turkish settlement in its core. It was founded in mid 17th century, but its planimetry today shows no traces of Ottoman urbanism. In the late 16th century, no settlement in Turkish Croatia had more than 500 houses, so only Požega and Ilok (seat of sandžak) might be regarded as towns. On the Venetian border in Dalmatia, the bigger towns included Turkish Knin, Drniš and Klis. In the 17th century, the towns expanded significantly. Before that, largely due to their decrepit condition, fire and other damages, the majority of their construction fund was altered. Before the Turkish downfall in 1680, Požega had 1, 000 to 1, 500 houses, and Osijek developed into a strong trading center with the big panađur (market part of the town), so by the end of Turkish rule, it had over 2, 000 houses with 12, 000 inhabitants – far more than any other town in the free part of Croatia, including the strongest centers in Dalmatia.
Vrsta sudjelovanja: Predavanje
Vrsta prezentacije u zborniku: Cjeloviti rad (više od 1500 riječi)
Vrsta recenzije: Međunarodna recenzija
Projekt / tema: 054-0543089-2967
Izvorni jezik: ENG
Kategorija: Znanstveni
Znanstvena područja:
Arhitektura i urbanizam
Puni text rada: 512748.kara-uni_bari.doc (tekst priložen 9. Svi. 2011. u 23:27 sati)
Upisao u CROSBI: (, 9. Svi. 2011. u 23:27 sati

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