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Autori: Čukelj, Nikolina; Smerdel, Bojana; Vrana Špoljarić, Ivna; Novotni, Dubravka; Ćurić, Duška
Naslov: Influence of Baking on Phenolic Compounds of Wholegrain Flaxseed Cookies
Izvornik: Bioactive Compounds in Cereal Grains and FoodsBeč :
Skup: ICC International Symposium on Bioactive Compounds in Cereal Grains and Foods
Mjesto i datum: Beč, Austrija, 24.-25.04.2014
Ključne riječi: baking; cookies; flaxseed; total phenols; phenolic acids; lignans
Sažetak:
Recently it has been recognized that cereals are an important source of plant food phenolic compounds. However, while it is known that phenolic compounds are in general susceptible to thermal degradation (Alvarez-Jubete et al., 2010), not much data has been reported on the stability of cereal phenolics during processing. Thus, in this work we examined the influence of baking on the stability of phenolic compounds in wholegrain cookies made from wheat, rye, oat, and barely flour, enriched with 10% of milled flaxseed. Total phenols, bound phenolic acids and lignans were determined separately in used flour, flaxseed and cookies by Folin-Ciocalteu method (Yu et al., 2002), HPLC-PDA (Li et al., 2009 ; IOOC, 2009) and GC-ECD (Čukelj et al. 2011), respectively. To compare phenolic compounds before and after baking, values before baking were approximated according to the determined phenolic content in flour and flaxseed and their proportions in the recipe, while values after baking were measured in baked cookies. In whole grain flaxseed cookies total phenols were in range 143, 72 – 169, 99 mg FAE/100 g, while before baking cookies contained 134, 05 – 141, 65 mg FAE/100 g. This increase after baking is in accordance with Gélinas and McKinnon (2006), and it could be a result of Maillard reactions. However, the increase was significant (p≤0, 05) only for wheat, rye and barley cookies. The increase in phenolic acids was noticed in all cookie types but significant (p≤0, 05) only for wheat flaxseed cookies. Before baking, the range of total phenolic acids was 35, 34 – 44, 16 mg/100 g, while after baking it was 36, 32 – 63, 01 mg/100 g. Ferulic acid was the most dominant phenolic acid in cookies, followed by p-coumaric acid, and their increase or decrease in cookies was dependable on used ingredients. Similarly, when total lignans were observed, the change in lignan amount was higher or lower after baking, depending on the cookie type. This could be due to the change in the specific lignan type, as shown before by Durrazzo et al. (2013). In all cookies an increase in pinoresinol and syringaresinol was observed after baking, as well as a decrease in the amount of secoisolariciresinol. The change of lariciresinol amount was dependable on the cookie recipe. However, the difference in total lignans was not significant for any of analysed cookies. The amount of total lignans before baking was in range 11, 02– 11, 14 mg/100 g, while after baking it was 10, 10 – 11, 75 mg/100 g. It can be concluded that cereal phenolics, which are known to exist mainly in the bound form, are not significantly susceptible to degradation, and that their content could be even increased after exposure to higher temperatures for short time (170°C/12 min). However, further research is needed in order to understand how specific ingredients influence the increase or decrease of phenolic compounds in cereal products during processing.
Vrsta sudjelovanja: Poster
Vrsta prezentacije u zborniku: Sažetak
Vrsta recenzije: Nema recenziju
Izvorni jezik: ENG
Kategorija: Znanstveni
Znanstvena područja:
Prehrambena tehnologija
Upisao u CROSBI: Nikolina Čukelj (ncukelj@pbf.hr), 2. Svi. 2014. u 10:57 sati



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