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Pregled bibliografske jedinice broj: 879252

Poglavlje/Rad u knjizi

Autori: Corr, Philip, J.; Krupić, Dino
Naslov: Motivating personality: Approach, avoidance, and their conflict
Knjiga: Advances in Motivation Science: Volume 4
Urednik/ci: Andrew Elliott
Izdavač: Elsevier
Grad: London
Godina: 2017
Serija: Volume 4
Raspon stranica:: 39-90
Ukupni broj stranica u knjizi:: 247
ISBN: 978-0-12-812123-8
Ključne riječi: reinforcement sensitivity theory ; motivation ; personality ; avoidance ; approach
Sažetak:
Evolution has bound closely together motivation and personality. Much of personality psychology today is based on the (increasingly neuro) science of fundamental systems of motivation. This is most clearly seen in the family of approacheavoidance theories that describe the major brain-behavioral systems that mediate reactions to stimuli appraised by the animal (including human beings) as falling into appetitive (attractor) and aversive (repulsor) classes. Here “motivation” may be seen as an immediate state process, which is affected by transient internal factors such as drive (e.g., hunger) and external situational constraints and affordances. In contrast, personality may be seen as the corresponding longer-term trait of typical motivation. In the causal cascade, it is emphasized that goal representations are at the heart of true latent motivation, while states are the observed expression of such motivation modified by a host of internal and external factors. Over a century’s worth of experimental research leads us to suppose the existence of two major negative-defensive “avoidance” systems, one related to pure avoidance and escape of aversive stimuli, and the other to behavioral inhibition evoked by the detection of goal conflict. A third major, positive-incentive, motivation system is related to exploratory approach, reward sensitivity/reactivity, goal-drive persistence, and impulsivity. These systems of motivation and personality are discussed in terms of Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST), which proposes three systems corresponding, respectively, to these basic forms of motivation: Fight-Flight-Freeze System, Behavioral Inhibition System, and Behavioral Approach System. The conceptual foundations of RST are outlined, and the neuropsychological systems delineated, which includes discussion of automatic-controlled processes, as well as the exotica of consciousness. Psychometric measurement systems are then presented and examples of the applications of RST are provided. Finally, the problems for future research are sketched to guide the RST-inspired student of motivation and personality.
Izvorni jezik: ENG
Kategorija: Znanstveni
Znanstvena područja:
Psihologija
Upisao u CROSBI: Dino Krupić (dkrupic@ffos.hr), 5. Lip. 2017. u 11:26 sati



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