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Autori: Čartolovni, Anto; Nakić-Radoš, Sandra
Naslov: Social and psychological determinants within fulfilment of the child’s right to be loved
Skup: 2nd International Conference on Bioethics in the New Age of Science (BNAS 2018)
Mjesto i datum: Segedin, Mađarska, 10-11-05.2018.
Ključne riječi: postporođajna depresija, pravo biti voljen, bioetika
The ongoing conceptual and theoretical discussion about the right to be loved as a part of the human rights introduced recently by Mathew Liao where every child as a human being has a right to be loved, encounters some theoretical and foundational problems. Relying on the international declarations which state that children have right to love, affection, and understanding, Liao raise the question why the children’s right to be loved should not exist among the human rights. From that premise, he starts to build a concept of the right to be loved. Interestingly, he does not settle the right to be loved as a part of the human rights on the concept of human dignity, but he perceives the foundation in the genetic basis of moral agency. In other words, genetic predetermination for moral agency classifies the child as a carrier of the right to be loved, in such way he provides the defensible argument that supersedes the discussion regarding cognitive capacity to reason as a precondition for human rights in child case. According to Liao, it is not questionable that children are the human rights holders, and in his view, the genetic basis for moral agency determines that. Relying on the vision of the human rights as a right to the fundamental conditions for pursuing good life presents the right to be loved as the unconditional obligation of the biological parents but not only of parents, according to Liao, but also of every citizen. According to this absolute requirement meaning that the parents and society are duty bearers in fulfilling this right, Liao goes even one step further in his thinking evoking the consideration that love can be commanded. It is hard to expect that love as emotion can be commanded and that it is possible to force someone to love a child, besides this objection, other various authors have emphasised other critical points from the conceptual and empirical perspective. Leaving aside the discussion about the feasibility of commanding someone to love and the reality of that expectation, we would like to focus on his presumed parental obligation to provide love to their children. Although it seems that, it would be most plausible to expect from parents to love their children and that they first fulfil the requirements of the right to be loved for children to pursue a good life, from the psychological perspective it can encounter some difficulties. These difficulties do not underestimate the right to be loved proposed by the Liao, nor its consistency is questionable, but we want to demonstrate that it is not so simple to claim that this right can be pursued easily. Even the biological parents encounter difficulties in the early months of the child life where the parents feel incapable of loving their babies, as George Rainbolt, one of the Liao’s book reviewers, testifies how he was unable to love his sons until they were four or five months old. Many parents confront with this inability to love ; therefore, it deserves particular attention if we want to hold biological parents as duty bearers of the right to be loved then we need to be sure that they can be accountable for exercising it. This inability to love is correlated with bonding between parents and child, as a precursor of the attachment development. The bonding process between parents and the child, especially between mother and the child, starts already in the mother’s womb. The bonding mostly relies on parent-child interaction and represent an emotional reaction which provides protection, comfort, affection and love. As has been noted earlier, the parent-child interaction, including bonding, is determined by the intertwined actions of the three groups of determinants: parental psychological resources, contextual sources of stress and support, and characteristics of the child. Different psychological determinants may influence the bonding process in children such as parental mental health (depression, symptoms of postpartum PTSP) of both mother and the father, and its manifestation on children. Besides these psychological factors, there are contextual factors that determine this bonding process between parents and children such as the quality of marital relationship or different kinds of conflict between family and work role. Although it seems proper to expect from the parent that they need to provide love to their children, it is not easy in some cases, not by their fault but because of other causes that inhibit the bonding process from which love emerges. Therefore, in some cases, we cannot hold these parents responsible because they cannot be accountable as duty bearers from the perspective of the rights to be loved. Taking into consideration of the psychological and social determinants from which the bonding process depends on, we can conclude that the right to be loved proposed by Liao cannot universally imply that all the parents are duty bearers. Some of them struggle and are incapacitated by the psychological and contextual determinants. According to these findings, at first sight, two things can be concluded. First, the factors that determine the bonding process also question the universality of the right to be loved proposed by Liao. In other words, if it cannot be universally applied it also cannot be human right on which Liao found this concept. However, the second conclusion would be if at the moment it could not be fulfilled it does not automatically imply that it does not exist and that do not deserve to exist but indicate the need to discover what inhibits its fulfilment. Therefore, the starting point as we have seen should be in time discovery of the determinants that impede the bonding process and their removal. Their discovery would represent a challenge for society as well because the parents could not be maintained as duty bearers, therefore the responsibility of this right transfer onto society. However, not in the form that they need to provide the actual parental love to these children, but to help parents by providing adequate support to understand what the exact problem within bonding process is. In order to do that, early recognition of such problems using different measurement tools is crucial. The identification should be then followed by education/counselling about proper coping mechanisms and changing the contextual and social circumstances. This full engagement from the society perspective can be interpreted as an act of solidarity in front of the child, to help the child to pursue a good life where at this stage one of the preconditions is to receive adequate love and nurtured by their parents.
Vrsta sudjelovanja: Predavanje
Vrsta prezentacije u zborniku: Nije objavljen
Vrsta recenzije: Međunarodna recenzija
Projekt / tema: HKS-2018-4
Izvorni jezik: ENG
Kategorija: Znanstveni
Znanstvena područja:
Kliničke medicinske znanosti,Psihologija,Filozofija
Upisao u CROSBI: Anto Čartolovni (, 11. Kol. 2018. u 13:32 sati

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